Anatomy and physiology review sheet 6 classification of tissues

20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation. 11.3 Explain the criteria used to name skeletal muscles. (6th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 158–97. ISBN. Rapid and strong contraction; large, cylindrical, elongated cells; syncytium; peripheral and ovoid nuclei; striated; present in voluntary skeletal muscles. The skin is an epithelial membrane also called the cutaneous membrane. It is a stratified squamous epithelial membrane resting on top of connective tissue. The apical surface of this membrane is exposed to the external environment and is covered with dead, keratinized cells that help protect the body from desiccation and pathogens. Stratified epithelia can be columnar, cuboidal, or squamous type. However, it can also have the following specializations: Chapter 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation. 23.5 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder. Elastic fibers, made from elastin and fibrillin, also provide resistance to stretch forces. [18]. View this slideshow to learn more about stem cells. How do somatic stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells? Simple epithelium consists of a single layer of cells. They are typically where absorption, secretion and filtration occur. The thinness of the epithelial barrier facilitates these processes. Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. [8]. Our mission is to improve educational access and learning for everyone. Hypermobility as a result of an inherited connective tissue defect. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Structure - cells (structural, immunological, defense, energy reservoirs), extracellular matrix (ground substance, protein fibers). Potter, Hugh. "The Connective Tissues". Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012. The two broad categories of tissue membranes in the body are (1) connective tissue membranes, which include synovial membranes, and (2) epithelial membranes, which include mucous membranes, serous membranes, and the cutaneous membrane, in other words, the skin. The zygote is described as omnipotent because it ultimately gives rise to all the cells in your body including the highly specialized cells of your nervous system. Describe this transition, discussing the steps and processes that lead to these specialized cells. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium– found in regions subject to abrasion, for example oral mucosa and vaginal lining. The primary tissue types work together to contribute to the overall health and maintenance of the human body. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. View access options below. is found in the heart wall also known as myocardium. Like skeletal muscle, actin and myosin also give cardiac muscle a striated appearance. The movement that cardiac muscle cells provide is involuntary and coordinated by gap junctions. A major defining characteristic of cardiac muscle tissue is the presence of intercalated disks. Cardiac muscle cells are elongated and branched. Intercalated disks are present at the junctions between two cells. Although gap junctions allow this tissue to function as a syncytium, each cell has one, centrally located nucleus. Do you want to find out more about connective tissue in a more visual way? Follow along with the following study units:. The cells originate from mesenchyme, a loosely organized embryonic tissue featuring elongated cells in a viscous ground substance. Connective tissue cells do not oppose each other but rather are separated by a large extracellular matrix. Embryonic Origin of Tissues The zygote, or fertilized egg, is a single cell formed by the fusion of an egg and sperm. After fertilization the zygote gives rise to rapid mitotic cycles, generating many cells to form the embryo. The first embryonic cells generated have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell in the body and, as such, are called totipotent, meaning each has the capacity to divide, differentiate, and develop into a new organism. As cell proliferation progresses, three major cell lineages are established within the embryo. As explained in a later chapter, each of these lineages of embryonic cells forms the distinct germ layers from which all the tissues and organs of the human body eventually form. Each germ layer is identified by its relative position: ectoderm (ecto- = "outer"), mesoderm (meso- = "middle"), and endoderm (endo- = "inner"). Figure 4.3 shows the types of tissues and organs associated with the each of the three germ layers. Note that epithelial tissue originates in all three layers, whereas nervous tissue derives primarily from the ectoderm and muscle tissue from mesoderm. By the end of this section, you will be able to:. Transitional epithelia are found in tissues such as the urinary bladder where there is a change in the shape of the cell due to stretching. Two major characteristics of epithelial tissue divide it into subclasses: the shape of the cells and the presence of layers. Figure 4.1.1– The Four Primary Tissue Types: Examples of nervous tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and connective tissue found throughout the human body. Clockwise from nervous tissue, LM × 872, LM × 282, LM × 460, LM × 800. (Micrographs provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School 2012). Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Pseudostratified epithelium possesses fine hair-like extensions called cilia and unicellular glands called goblet cells that secrete mucus. This epithelium is described as ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. In women, the breasts overlie the pectoralis major muscles and usually extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib in the front of the human rib cage; thus, the breasts cover much of the chest area and the chest walls. At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle (collarbone) to the middle of the sternum (breastbone). At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla (armpit), and can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle, extending from the lower back to the humerus bone (the bone of the upper arm). As a mammary gland, the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue, predominantly two types: adipose tissue; and glandular tissue, which affects the lactation functions of the breasts. [17]. The "lower jaws" are modified versions of the opercula that protect the retracted lophophores in autozooids of some species, and are snapped shut "like a mousetrap" by similar muscles, [13]. Which of the following types of joints do NOT have a synovial cavity? 1. Fibrous joints 2. Cartilaginous joints 3. Synovial joints A) 1 only B) 2 only C) 3 only D) 1 and 2 E) All of these choices. PENILE TRAUMA Penile trauma can result from a blunt or penetrating injury, the latter being rarely investigated by imaging methods, almost always requiring immediate surgical exploration ( 2 ). In the erect penis, trauma results from stretching and narrowing of the tunica albuginea, which can undergo segmental rupture of one or both of the corpora cavernosa, constituting a penile fracture. In the ultrasound examination, a lesion of the tunica albuginea presents as an interruption in (loss of continuity of) the echoic line representing it ( Figure 4 ). Small, moderate, or broad hematomas demonstrate the extent of that discontinuity ( 4 ). Intracavernous hematomas, sometimes without the presence of a tunica albuginea fracture, can be observed when there is a lesion of the smooth muscle of the trabeculae surrounding the sinusoid spaces or the subtunical venular plexus ( 3 ). The name phospholipid is derived from the fact that phosphoacylglycerols are lipids containing a phosphate group. The dynamic nature of bone means that new tissue is constantly formed, and old, injured, or unnecessary bone is dissolved for repair or for calcium release. The cells responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, are the osteoclasts. These multinucleated cells originate from monocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells, not from osteogenic cells. Osteoclasts are continually breaking down old bone while osteoblasts are continually forming new bone. The ongoing balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is responsible for the constant but subtle reshaping of bone. Table 6.3 reviews the bone cells, their functions, and locations. Name an example of each type of fibrous joint and describe its functional properties. Lipids are organic compounds that are fatty acids or derivatives of fatty acids, which are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. For eg., natural oil, steroid, waxes. expanded areas of fibrous connective tissue that separate the braincase bones of the skull prior to birth and during the first year after birth. Venous drainage is performed by the deep and superficial dorsal veins of the penis. The dorsal arteries of the penis are located adjacent to the deep dorsal vein and a cavernous artery is located in the center of each corpus cavernosum. On color Doppler, the cavernous arteries present single phase flow. In the flaccid penis ( Figure 3 ), the normal cavernous arteries show a systolic peak between 11 and 20 cm/s ( 1 ). At the beginning of erection, the systolic and diastolic flows undergo progressive increases. When vein occlusion begins, the diastolic flow decreases progressively, and once stiffness is established, it becomes negative ( 1 ). Figure 6.3.9– Paget's Disease: Normal leg bones are relatively straight, but those affected by Paget's disease are porous and curved. exoskeletons look very like small corals. However, bryozoan colonies are founded by an ancestrula, which is round rather than shaped like a normal zooid of that species. On the other hand, the founding polyp of a coral has a shape like that of its daughter polyps, and coral zooids have no coelom or lophophore. [16]. "Lipids are organic compounds that contain hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms, which forms the framework for the structure and function of living cells.". Individual members of a bryozoan colony are about 0.5 mm ( 1⁄ 64. Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose. 2, it is more dilated and prominent in its proximal segment, known as the bulb, and in its distal segment, constituting the glans ( 2 ). Buck's fascia is superficial to the tunica albuginea and covers all of the structures described. What type of special movement occurs in your clavicles at your acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints when you cross your arms in front of your body? A) Protraction B) Retraction C) Inversion D) Eversion E) Supination. Fats: Esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the liquid state. Within these two major classes of lipids, there are numerous specific types of lipids important to live, including fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and steroids. These are broadly classified as simple lipids and complex lipids. In others there is no gap in the protective skeleton, and the transverse muscles pull on a flexible sac which is connected to the water outside by a small pore; the expansion of the sac increases the pressure inside the body and pushes the invert and lophophore out. [13]. There are two major types of lipids- simple lipids and complex lipids. Simple lipids are esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. For eg., fats and waxes. On the contrary, complex lipids are esters of fatty acids with groups other than alcohol and fatty acids. For eg., phospholipids and sphingolipids. Fatty acids are pivotal components of all these lipids. The lophophore and mouth are mounted on a flexible tube called the "invert", which can be turned inside-out and withdrawn into the polypide, [13]. The sides of the tentacles bear fine hairs called cilia, whose beating drives a water current from the tips of the tentacles to their bases, where it exits. Food particles that collide with the tentacles are trapped by mucus, and further cilia on the inner surfaces of the tentacles move the particles towards the mouth in the center. [18]. that the size of the human breasts can be explained by the handicap theory of sexual dimorphism. This would see the explanation for larger breasts as them being an honest display of the women's health and ability to grow and carry them in her life. Prospective mates can then evaluate the genes of a potential mate for their ability to sustain her health even with the additional energy demanding burden she is carrying. while the beak-shaped upper jaw is the inverted body wall. [23]. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 11. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 12. Describe the characteristic features for fibrous joints and give examples. 6. Kalokairinou K, Konstantinidis C, Domazou M, et al. US imaging in Peyronie's disease. A saponifiable lipid comprises one or more ester groups, enabling it to undergo hydrolysis in the presence of a base, acid, or..


 
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